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For the purpose of Improving agricultural education and research In Liberia, an agreement was entered between the United Nations Special Fund (UNSF), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the Government of Liberia (GOL) on 25 October, 1961, by which a College of Agriculture was to be developed to operate as an integral part of the University of Liberia with the assistance of UNSF and FAO. Consequently, the College was inaugurated In March 1962 and a 4-year curriculum in General Agriculture leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture was established. The first group of four students graduated In December 1965.

Forestry courses were first offered at the University of Liberia In 1955. In 1956, with the assistance of FAO, the School of Forestry was started under the auspices of the Government of Liberia, and the Department of Agriculture. The first class of students graduated In December 1959. In the same year, the school came under the direction of the University and It* status was raised to a college. A 4-year curriculum in General Forestry leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science In Forestry was offered and ttw FAO's assistance continued.

In 1967 the originally separate Colleges of Agriculture and Forestry were merged into one College of Agriculture and Forestry. Since then the curricula have been modified to assure Interlocking of related fields to suit the conditions of Liberia. Now, there are six (6) Instructional areas, viz: Agronomy, General Agriculture, General Forestry, Wood Science and Technology, Home and Community Development, and Agricultural Extension Education; with the first three offering a 4-year curriculum leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, Forestry and Wood Science. The latter has a combination with Agriculture. The University Farm. University Forests, Forest Products Research Laboratory/and the Agricultural Extension Training Center have been established to serve as the centers of activities for programs related to Instruction, research and demonstration carried out by the college.


The principal functions of the College are:

  1. To train students In the practical knowledge and skills of agriculture and forestry to
    meet the needs and problems of Liberia Every student must adhere to the ideals of truth, honesty and service to mankind.

  2. To provide for continuing Intellectual growth, service and leadership vital to agriculture
    and forestry and the nation.

Degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Requirements

The course of study, which is shown in the curriculum, takes four years. Minimum requirements for the degree of bachelor of science In Agriculture are 131 semester hours, including 126 taken during the semesters and 5 from the Agriculture Practices conducted in the long vacation periods of the Freshman, Sophomore and Junior years.

The above 131 semester hours include two for ROTC from which foreign students are exempted.

Course Description - Agriculture

Agri-101/Fore-102 -Introduction to Agriculture

Agriculture today and its characteristics. Agricultural geography and regional pattern of world agriculture. The possibilities of African rural development in relation to economic and social growth. Scope, importance and possibilities on the development of agriculture in Liberia. The opportunities in agriculture and the function of the agricultural curriculum.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

*Agri-121 Freshman Farm Practice

Agri-201 Rural Sociology

Rural society as it is today, dynamic and transitional. The rapid changes taking place in population shifts, technology, modern communications, formal education, and contemporary rural life. Current research in terms of rural group reactions, interactions and inter-relation. How rural people use the decision-making process in their adaptation to change.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-202 - Agricultural Extension Education

The history, relationship, philosophy, purposes, legislation, aims and objectives of agricultural and extension education. Various aspects of the place of agriculture in rural schools and communities, including the duties, functions and responsibilities of extension workers, agricultural teachers, and rural youth workers. Various types of demonstrations, methods for disseminating information, application of audio-visual materials;conduct of farm visits, tours and exhibits. Planning, organizing and operating programs in agricultural and extension education.

*AII steps involved in producing a fairly wide variety of vegetables from time of seed purchase up to the time of harvest.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Agri-221 -Sophomore Farm Practice

Introduction to basic mechanic tools, tractor nomenclature, pre-starting procedures in tractor operation, daily and periodic servicing of tractors, tractor driving practice.

Credit: 1 credit/three weeks on the
University Farm during the long

Agri-301 - Agricultural Engineering

Basic principles of internal combustion engines. Parts and working of two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline and diesel engines. Transmission of power in an agricultural tractor including all the components of transmission system and traction devices types, use arid operation of farm tractors, selection and management of farm power units.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-302 - Agricultural Engineering

Farm machineries. Equipment for land preparations, sowing, inter-row cultivation, spraying and dusting and harvesting. Farm equipment -grinders mixers, cleaners and driers. The working of the above units, methods of operation and their maintenance.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-303 -AgricultureStatistics

An introductory course designed to familiarize students with the role of statistics in various fields of study with emphasis on agriculture. Calculation, interpretation and use of various statistical measures.

Agri-304 - Principles of Agricultural Marketing

Revision of basic economic concepts as they apply to the field of marketing, principles of agricultural production and products. Marketing agencies, channels, services and costs. Study of the modern supermarket system as compared with the traditional.

Agri-305 - Farm Practice (Field Crop Production)

A practical introduction to the production of field crops such as rice, cassava, field corn, peanuts, etc. in Liberia. Its position and potential in land use, feed supply and economic development of the country.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Agri-306 - Farm Practice (Animal Production)

A practical introduction to the daily care and management of farm animals.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Agri-Fore-307 - Nature and Properties of Soils

The concepts of "soils'. Nature and occurrence of geological materials. Weathering processes, physical properties and composition of soil. Chemical properties of soils; nature and properties of soil colloids and soil pH. Soil organic matter, soil water properties and movement. Study of the soil profile, factors of soil formation, soils genesis and soil conservation. Soil management and land classifications.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-308 - Soil Fertility and Fertilizers
Pre-requisite; Nature and Properties of Soils Agri-307

History of soil fertility. Essentials for plants growth. Mechanisms of nutrient uptake by the plants. Major concepts in soil fertilizers, Farm and green manure. Fertilizer management. Economics of fertilizer use, Effects of fertilizer and soil on crop quality.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-309 - Principles of Animal Production
Pre-requisite: General Zoology

A general introduction to animals. Some aspects of anatomy and physiology of farm animals relative to their economic performance. Animal hygiene, principles of infection, immunology, measures of prevention and control of livestock diseases. The mechanism of thenno-regulation. The effect of climate on livestock performance.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agrt-310 -Animal Nutrition and Feeding
Pre-requisite: Agri-309 Principles of Animal Production

The course covers the principles of nutrition, chemistry and metabolism of nutrients, feed evaluation, livestock and feed requirements. Livestock feed ingredients, compounding rations, feeding trials, measuring feed efficiency are also examined.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-311 -Crop Production

Study of the principles and practices of field crop production. Food crops such as rice, cassava, corn, peanuts, etc. are given special emphasis on their cultural practice under the climate and soil conditions of the tropics. The relation of environmental factors to crops distribution; cultural practices; weed and pest control; crop rotation; importance of good varieties; good seed and seed testing; and other practices relating to the production of the individual crops are studied and compared.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-312 - Crop Physiology

Fundamentals of plants physiology, solution and colloidal systems, photosynthesis, water and nutrition relations, metabolism, growth and development, and their application in crop production.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-321 -Junior Farm Practice

Practical surveying and mapping methods are carried out at the University Farm and Forest during the first three weeks after which a ! survey of data collection on traditional farms is carried out. This is an opportunity for students to live with traditional farmers to observe their way of life in rural areas, learn about problems and practices in rural farming.

On the job training with agricultural concessions or the National | j Agricultural Extension Service on rice development projects, agricultural I : research and experimental stations is also provided.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-401 - Farm Practice
(Tree and Perennial Crop Production)

Practical introduction to establishment and management of orchard and/or plantation crops like citrus, banana, mango, avocado, etc.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Agri-402 - Farm Management and Accounting

A study of the basic tools used in farm management investigation and analysis such as economic principles, farm records, etc. Getting started in farming. Operation of the farm for continuous profits. Analysis and planning of a farm business. Study of two contrasting systems of farming with emphasis on the transition from the traditional to the commercial.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-403 - Surveying
Pre-requisite: Junior Farm Practice Agri-321

A study of the objects, principles and practice of elementary sur- , veying. Use of ranging poles, steel bands and chains, arrows, offset and topographic trailer tapes, dry and prismatic oil-immersion compasses and Abney levels. Chain triangulations and plotting of chain surveys.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-404 - Livestock Management
Pre-requisite: Agri-309 Principles of Animal Production.
Agri-310 Animal Nutrition and Feeding

Course covers the classes of livestock, breeds and types: their history and development. Management of cattle, sheep, goat and swine; livestock facilities and equipment. Pasture utilization and ranch management; identification of stock keeping and interpretation of livestock records; livestock farm planning.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-405 - Basic Horticulture

A survey of the general field of horticulture. Consideration and application of principles involved in the culture and utilization of fruits and vegetables and their relation to the underlying sciences.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agrl-406 - Farm Practice
(Farm Workshop) _

Care and use of common hand and power tools, carpentry and woodwork, farm masonry, basic electricity, Simple plumbing procedures and ideas, hot and cold metal work - i.e. cutting, forming and weeding metals.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Agri-407 -Genetics
Pre-requisite; Zoology 406 Genetics, Evolution and Eugenics

A study of the principles of heredity, heritability of variations and theory of the gene, factor hypothesis, sex determination, linkage and crossing-over. Application of genetics to problems of population and immigration as well as analysis of the evidence for organic evolution and factors influencing it arc also treated.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-408 - Plant Breeding

Fundamental genetic principles and their application to the problems and method of crop improvement, breeding method* and accomplishments. Methods used in evaluation, distribution and maintaining improved crop varieties. Principles and practices of method of field experimentation with special reference on varietal, varietal-fertilizer and v"r fetal-cultural trials.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-409/410 -Crop Protection

A study of the principal methods used to control pests, vwrfs and diseases; ecological control, cultural control, biological control arK) control by breeding of resistant strains of crops. Chemical control, its formulation in the form of dusts, smoke, fumigants or Sprays, and the Choice of formulations. Application machinery, dusting systems, spraying systems, other systems of application; choosing, operating and maintaining equipment. Chemical control of diseases, insects and weeds inflicting rice, vegetable crops, rubber citrus, and other important cash crops of Liberia. Control of rodents and birds.

Credit: 2 credits/semester
Total: 4 credits

Agri-411 - Poultry Husbandry

The course covers the fundamentals of poultry husbandry including anatomy and physiology of fowl; basic principles of reproduction, housing, rearing and flock management practices. Egg and broiler production problems and principles of applied poultry nutrition, nutritional requirements for efficient growth, reproduction and production. Dietary ingredients, breeding principles applied to chickens and selecting of breeding stock. Emphasis is placed on the poultry industry in Liberia.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-412 -Animal Reproduction and Breeding

Study of reproduction in farm animal; artificial breeding, genetic principles and their application in breeding plans for animal improvement; selection, pedigree, individuality, progeny test, and selection indices. Heritability and breeding systems. Breeds of farm animals in West Africa, their distribution, origin and adaptation, Recording and performance tests.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-413 -Special Crops

This course is a continuation of Agri-311 - Crop Production. Besides sugar cane, soybean and sweet potatoes, tree crops such as coffee, cocoa, oil palm and kola nut are treated separately and in detail. Problems and cultural practices related to the operation of production of these crops are identified, discussed and compared.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-415 -Agricultural Finance

This course deals with basic factors of agricultural finance such as agricultural credit. The nature and sources of capital in Liberia, farmers credit needs, financial arrangements for farmers, and the agencies supplying agriculture are identified and examined. The role of agricultural credit in the development of agriculture in Liberia is also treated.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-416 -Tree and Perennial Fruit Crop

An introduction to fruit and tree crop growing with special emphasis on tropical fruit production. Establishment of an orchard and choosing of orchard sites; determination of proper kinds and varieties, management of orchards, their fertilization and pest control. Crops and soil management practices and problems are also covered.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-417 - Techniques and Method in Teaching Agriculture

The course prepares students in teaching Vocational Agriculture and Agri-business in elementary and secondary schools as well as to adult ... groups. Particular attention is given to the secondary school. Special emphasis is given to the techniques of problem solving, group decision-making and the practical implementation of decisions. Relationships of teacher-learner are emphasized. The writing of lesson plans and development of curriculum are discussed and practiced.
Supervision of school projects and on-the-far m improved practices are treated. Emphasis is also placed on how to organize adult farmer groups. Supervised practice-leaching laboratories are conducted as well as actual practice in local schools when feasible.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-418 - Introduction to Entomology

The course introduces the student to the morphology, comparative anatomy, physiology and classification of insects. The student is expected to be familiar with insect pets of animals and plants as well as typical economic insects and insect pest control.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-419/422 -Agricultural Research
(Offered in both semesters)

Research in crop and animal production. Methods used in investigation; planning of the investigation and laying out of the experiments, , collection and recording of the data, and analysis, interpretation and application of the results of the data.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-420 - Vegetable Crops

The course deals with the principles and importance of environmental factors, mineral nutrition, fertilizer and liming materials, irrigation and soil factors, cover crops and green manuring, crops mulches, herbicides and other practices on the growth and development of plants. Emphasis is placed on subject matters primarily geared to scientific development of crops in Liberia. Selection of vegetable crops, varieties, seed storage, plant growing, harvesting, post-harvesting physiology, processing and marketing are discussed.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-421 -Animal Diseases
Pre-requisite: Agri-309 Principles of Animal Production

The course concentrates on major diseases and disorders, symptoms control and treatment of infectious diseases in animals. Care of sick animals, deficiency diseases, digestive disorders, hormonal disturbances and poisoning are also emphasized.

Credit: 2 credits/semester

Agri-424 - Economics of Agricultural Development

A study of the basic features and characteristics of development economics with emphasis on agriculture. The underlying agricultural economic concepts and their role and application to national productivity and development are examined and compared. The relationship to other sectors of the national economy are examined and their impact on over-all development are compared. Strategies for accelerating development by helping to remove bottle-necks and instituting programs to induce capital formation, increase credits, improve marketing services, land-reform, etc. are also covered.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Agri-426 - Crops Processing
Pre-requisite: Agri-302, 311 and 413

The course exposes the student to the different methods employed in the processing of primary crops at the farm, village and small scale industrial levels. Emphasis is placed on such Liberian crops as rice, oil, palm, cassava, cocoa and coffee. The course covers the physical and chemical changes which take place during technical and biological processes.
The course also attempts to instill in the minds of the student a sense of responsibility in quality control measures and detection of adulteration of processed products as well as a definite concern for the prevention of food losses in processing operations.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Degree of Bachelor of Science
in Forestry Requirements

The course of study, which is shown in the curriculum, takes four years. Minimum requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Forestry are 131 Semester Hours, including 126 taken during the semesters and 5 from the Practices conducted in the long vacation periods of the Freshman, sophomore and Junior Years.

The above 131 Semester Hours include two for ROTC from which foreign students could be exempted.

Course Description

Fore-101/Agri-102 - Introduction to Forestry

This course surveys the history of forestry as a science with emphasis on forest types and their distribution, regeneration, succession, habitat factors, air temperature, climate, atmospheric moisture as well as forest benefits -direct and indirect, similarities and differences between agriculture and forestry are covered. Outlines of forest mensuration, silviculture, management, forestry policy, harvesting and utilization ate also treated. A model forest law in relation to the forest laws and regulations of the Republic of Liberia are examined. The course also highlights the importance of Forestry as a profession.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Fore-121 - Freshman Forest Practice

Nursery and Silviculture Practices. UL Forest Plantation site.

Credit: 2 credits/three weeks
at the University Forest
during the long vacation

Fore-201 - Dendrology
Pre-requisite: Botany 103 and 104

Introduction to plant economy, history, principles of plant taxonomy and current systems of classification. The course also introduces the student to the most important families of Monocotylenuonae and Dtctoyiedonae. Field identification of Liberian high forest trees using morphological characteristics of crown, leaves, twigs, bark, flower, fruit and stem growth type as well as laboratory practice of herbarium techniques are covered.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-202 - Biology of Wood
Pre-requisite: Botany 103 and 104

Introduction to the anatomy of stem and root, cambium, primary and secondary growth, wood quality in relation to tree growth; biological organisms of deterioration: identification of microscopical character with hand magnifier.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-203 - Forest Ecology

Climatology - atmosphere and weather elements, air masses and fronts movements; classification of climates in relation to vegetation types; ecology; ecological systems; tropical rain forest.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-204 - Forestry Policy, Law and Administration

The course covers the general aims and special characteristics of forest administration, administrative structure and control of provincial, district and lower level professional training at different levels. Forest research utilization and management organization as well as bids, contracts, permits, concession agreements and maintenance of records are also covered.

The basic principles of a forest law, the 1953 Forest Act of the Republic of Liberia, the 1957 Supplementary Forest Act of the Republic of Liberia and the rules and regulations governing the powers and functions of forest officers under the Forest Act of Liberia are also examined.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-221 - Sophomore Forestry Practice

Forest Botany - identification and classification of forest vegeta-
Credit: 1 credit/semester

Fore-301 - Forest Mensuration

Introduction of measurement for purposes of sale, management and research. Measurement of felled trees, logs and lumber and volume determination. Shape, taper, eccentricity of section and bark-thickness. The broad foot measure and log rules; volume tables and increment studies; sample plots and yield tables in plantation; use of mensuration instruments and their application are covered. Laboratory, a regular component.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-302 - Forest Inventories

The urgent need for forest inventories, and definitions of forest areas, ownership, volumes of standing timber, growth and drain. Enumerations based on coordinated aerial and ground surveys. Photogramme-try and photo-interpretation, maps and determination of forest areas. Estimation of volume of standing timber growth and drain. Systematic. random and stratified random sampling. The introduction of elementary statistical analysis so as to be able to calculate tolerable and reliable minimum estimates of exploitable timber volume.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-303 - Surveying

Objects, principles and practice of elementary surveying. Use of
ranging poles, steel bands, and chains, arrows, offset and topographic trailer tapes, dry and prismatic oil-Immersion compasses and abney, levels Chain triangulations and plotting of chain surveys.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-304 -Mapping

Different types of maps and map scales, Plotting, and adjusting closing errors. Measurement of areas, coping, enlarging and reducing maps. Lettering, tracing and colouring. Map reading and conventional signs. Marginal information. Grid systems. Orientating map and finding positions. Representation of height and section drawing. Aeriel photographs for constructing maps. Laboratory a regular component.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-305 - Forest Engineering

Forest roads. Location. Selection of route. Location survey. Selection of road-building materials. Construction and maintenance. Methods of computation for end areas. Ditching and drainage. Forest bridges. Planning new forest bridges. Investigation of site and required waterway- Determining size of stringers required for specific conditions. Design and construction of typical wooden bridges.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-306 - Logging Methods

The essentials and preparation of logging plans with specific emphasis on conditions in Liberia and adjoining countries. Considerations preliminary to actual harvesting. Preparation of trees 'or removal from the forest. Organization and control of harvesting operations. Cable and aerial logging systems with special consideration of tractor logging as applied to conditions in the tropic. Movement of products from the forest. Wire rope and accessories, type and size of wire rope. General study of accident prevention and satefy in logging operation.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore 309 - Wood Behavior
Pre-requisite: Physics 101 and 102, and Biology of Wood -202

Physical and mechanical properties; wood-fluid relations emphasizing moisture movement, permeability, dimensional and physical and mechanical changes as influenced by moisture content change, thermal and electrical properties; chemical component of the plant cell and of the cell wall. Laboratory, a regular component.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-310 - Forest Practice

Statistics analysis and interpretation of forest statistical data.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Fore-311 - Forest Practice
(Tractor Operation and Maintenance)

Introduction to basic mechanic tools, tractor nomenclature, pre-starting procedures in tractor operation, daily and periodic servicing of tractors, and tractor driving practical

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Fore-312 -Silviculture

Foundations of Silviculture: Soil conditions, biotic factors, solar radiation, air temperature, wind, flood, atmospheric moisture, humidity, climate, the inter-relation between the tree and its environment, characteristics of tree growth, tolerance and the forest as an ecological community.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-321 -Junior Forest Practice

During this period, major emphasis is placed on forest management, silviculture, mensuration, inventory, engineering, logging utilization and forest economics.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-401 - Forest Management

Nature, purpose and scope of forest management; the forest management situation in Liberia; site and stocking; forest yield and yield tables; growth and increment; fully regulated forest-nature of growing stock and yield determination of the cut; regulation of even-aged forests.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-402 - Forest Management and Working Plans

Nature and structure of uneven-aged management; determination of rotation; organizations and sub-division of forests for management; timber management planning and plans.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-403 - Forest Economics

Terms and definitions in forest economics. Characteristics of the demand and supply. Production marketing (export & import) and consumption of forest products. Community reports, general regional accounts of forest and forestry. Elements of economics. General national economy.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-404 - Forest Economics

Economics of regeneration, thinning, distribution of forest products. Forest economics of African countries with reference to West Africa. Planning forestry activities. The working capital. Labour productivity. The rotation period and its influence. Investment planning and types of investment. Financial plan; organization of an enterprise. Classification of program of forest officers. The techniques of forest valuation.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-405 - Primary Timber Industries
Pre-requisites: Chemistry 101 & 102; Wood Behavior 309

Saw-milling and conversion. Planning and operation of small sawmills and study of large saw-mills. Veneers and Plywood manufacture and other forest products. Particle board. Fober board. Mechanical and chemical pulp and paper manufacture. Grading of primary forest products and marketing channels.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-406 - Forest Utilization
Pre-requisite : Wood Behavior 309

Wood processing, machining, seasoning, gluing, preservation, and finishing. Three lectures and two hours of laboratory each week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-407 - Silviculture II

Seeds, seed handling, nursery practice, plantation establishment. Stand treatment and manipulation. Natural regeneration, Silvicultural systems with special reference to the tropics.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-408 -Silviculture III

Nursery and plantation practices continued. Natural regeneration. Silvicultural systems of the tropics. Species trial techniques and tree selection.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-409 - Forest Protection

Introduction to morphology of Insects, skeleton, digestive system, circulatory systems, nervous system, metamorphosis, control methods and insecticides.

Introduction to phytopathology; phycomycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycestes and fungi imperfecti; diseases with special reference to forest trees or attacking wood. Control methods and fungicides. Agents other than insects or fungi damaging or destroying forest. Morphology of insects and fungi. Laboratory, a regular component.

Credit: 2 credits/semester

Fore-410 - Introduction to Natural Rubber Production

Anatomy and biology of hevea Brasilliensis, its cultivation and exploitation and the processing of rubber. Management and economics of rubber farms.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

Fore-411 - Forest Practice

Survey of forest areas and plantations.

Credit: 1 credit/semester

Fore-413/414 - Forest Research
(Offered in both semesters)

Research in forest tree crops and production. Methods used for investigation; planning of the investigation and laying out of the experiments, collection and recording of the data, and analysis and interpretation of the results. Application of the results from the researches.

Credit: 1-3 credits/semester

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