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Degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology Requirements
(Biology Major, Chemistry Minor, Zoology Major, Botany Minor
Zoology Major, Chemistry Minor)

The course of study for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology takes four academic years. The minimum requirements for the degree are 134 semester hours. A candidate must complete his general education requirements of 43-45 semester hours as prescribed by the University of Liberia, hie must earn 49 semester hours in his major, 30 semester hours in his minor, 6 semester hours of elective and 6 semester hours in a support science.

Course Description - Biology

101 Biology - General Biological Survey I

A general biology survey course with emphasis on plant science. Characteristics of living things, a functional approach to the chemical basis of life, chemical principles common to Doth living and non-living things and synthesis of-elementary biological molecules in plants byway; of photosynthesis. Reproduction by cell divisions, alternation of genera--: tions, elementary mendelian principles and elementary olant development. Three (3) lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

102 Biology - General Biological Survey II
Pre-requisite: Biology 101

A continuation of functional approach to the study of living things with emphasis on animal biology. A general survey of the phyla and classes of the animal kingdom- Detail knowledge of anatorny and physiology as related to chemical reactions. Three (3) lectures and 3 hours of 1 laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

NOTE: Biology 101 - 102 is designed as a terminal biology course to be taken by any student not planning to concentrate in biology, chemistry, forestry or agriculture.

103 Biology -General Botany I

Introduction to the study of biology and characteristics of living things. Introduction to the science of classification. A study of the Chemical and physical-aspects of living things as related to the metabolism of organism. Study of the structure, function and reproduction of the cell. The general morphology of the flowering plant; root, stem, leaf, flower, inflorescence, fruit, seed, and germination. General survey of the spermatophytes. Three (3) lectures and three hours of laboratory per, week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

104 Biology-General Botany II

General survey of the structure, physiology and life history of the typical examples of thallophytes, bryophtes and tracheophytes up to the gymnosperms. An introduction to ecology and conservation is also given. Three (3) lectures and 3 hours of laboratory each week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

105 Biology - General Botany
(For Pre-medical students)

An introduction to the Biology of Plant organisms. General principles basic to the living system, such as unique characteristics: adaptation, reproduction, irritability evolution, and such basic processes as gene expression via protein systhesis (elementary), cellular transport phenomena (an introduction) and metabolism, Characteristic botanical principles such as photosynthesis, respiration, differentiation and development and botanical heredity, from the viruses to the angiosperms. The systematic morphology and anatomy of representative members of the phyla of the Plant Kingdom, with emphasis on taxonomic significance. Elements of environmental science and evolution. First Semester. Three (3) hours lectures and three (3) hours laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

201 Biology-General Zoology
Pre-requisite: Biology 103,104, 105

A study of the major phyla of the animal kingdom. Classification, morphology, distribution, life history, ecology and economic importance of the invertebrate phyla of the animal kingdom Is studied. Microscopic study and dissections of typical examples of the various phyla are stressed. Three (3) lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

301 Biology - Microbiology:
Pre-requisite: Biology 104 and 201

Introduction to the biology of micro-organisms and their role in nature. First Semester. Three lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

305 Biology - Cytogenetics:
Pre-requisites: Biology 103-104, Biology 201-202

Structure and functions of cell organelles; cytogenetics; chromosome aberration, archetecture, multiplicity leading to pathology and species modification, rationable and use of various cytochemical procedures, laboratory exercises cover both animal and plant materials. Three (3) hours lecture and three (3) hours laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

307 Biology - Introduction to Microtechniques
Pre-requisites: Biology 201; Chemistry 301 & 302

Introductory course in biology microtechniques with emphasis on the zoology aspect. The scope of the course is designed to cover microscopic methods including preparation of whole mounts, various staining techniques to demonstrate details of anatomy, histology and cytology of animals and plants.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

309-310 Biology - General Biochemistry
Pre-requisites: Chemistry 101 and 102; 301
and 302, Biology 103 and 104; 201 and 202

An Introduction to the substances involved in living organisms; the changes which they undergo, and the energetics of these changes. The physical and chemical basis for biological phenomena are to be extensively examined.

An introduction to metabolism with emphasis on energy considerations. Topics relating to biological oxidation, carbohydrate, liquid and acids, metabolism are studied; also the genetic aspect of metabolism is examined. Three (3) lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

NOTE: This course is designed for pre-medical students and chemistry
or zoology majors. It is recommended for students strong in
chemistry, with a broad training in the biological and physical
sciences. Student's background needs and interest will be
taken into consideration for entrance into the course.

410 Biology - Introduction to Biophysics
Pre-requisltes: Biology 103, 104, 201, 101, 309, 310
Chemistry: 101, 205, 206, 301, 302
Physics: 101, 102
Mathematics: 105, 106

Open only to senior students or by consent of professor. As an interface discipline, between the life sciences and the physical sciences, this course is designed to elucidate the dynamics of the living system in terms of physical phenomena. It will elaborate such concepts, initially encountered in Biology, Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physics such as: the general biophysics of the cell (simplifications and idealizations); the Atmos (elementary particles); Electromagnetic radiation and biological systems; Chemical bonds and bonds interactions, water (cystal water, etc.). Elements of thermodynamics with extent ion into bionergetics. Physics and Chemical equilibria with extension into Equilibria Across Membrances. Transport phenomena as biological systems will consist of the bulk of the course. General kinetics and kinetics of enzyme reactions and the biophysics of nucleic acids, their hydrodynamics properties and as related to genetics systems will also be considered, some-what synop-tically. 3 hours lecture/week plus 2 hours lab. and demonstration.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

301 Botany - Cryptogamic Botany:
Pre-requisite: Biology 103 & 104

A study of the classification, characteristics and life cycles of algae-fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns. A comparative study of the cellular levels of advancement, leading to a morphological knowledge of the Cryptogams and collection of type specimen constitute the course. Three (3) lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

302 Botany - Plant Anatomy:
Pre-requisite: Biology 102 & 104

A study of the gross and microscopic morphology of vascular plants which starts with the cell, and continues with the differentiation of cells, that lead to the formation of tissue systems; and organ system in plants. Slide of representative tissue will be prepared. Second Semester. Two lectures and two hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

303 Botany - Bacteriology:
Pre-requisite: Biology 301

A study of the form, distribution, and physiology of the bacteria. Their role in disease, sanitation, and hygiene; or organisms related to the bacteria. Basic and advanced laboratory techniques. First or Second semester. Three (3) lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

304 Botany - Systematic Botany:
Pre-requisite: Biology 103

A field and laboratory course In the identification and classification of the most common flowering plants in Liberia. A herbarium is prepared by each student. Three lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

401 Botany - Economic Botany
Pre-requisite: Biology 103

A study of the plant and plant product Important to man: for Industry, medicine and food. Special attention is given to morphology, physiology and growing conditions of plants found in Liberia. First Semester. One lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 2 credits/semester

402 Botany - Plant Physiology
Pre-requisite: Botany 302, Chemistry 301 & 302

A study of the life processes in plants, with emphasis on flowering plants which Include; plants cells, water relation, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen, metabolism, photoperiodism and dynamics of growth In plants. Three lectures and three (3) hours laboratory.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

403 Botany - Virology
Pre-requisite: Biology 301

Study of plant, animal and bacterial viruses, virus structure, biochemistry, reproduction, virus-host relationship, symptomology, transmission, inhibition, serology and control. First or Second Semester, Three lectures and two one and half (te) laboratory periods per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

301-302 Zoology - Invertebrate Zoology
Pre-requisite: Biology 201 and 202

Comparative study of the major invertebrate phyla with detailed study of the classification, phylogeny and morphology (anatomy and histology). Representative types of Protozoa Cnidaria, Annelida, Arthro-poda (excluding Insects), Mollusca and Echinodermata are studied. In addition, microscopic studies and dissections of larger specimens not studied in Biology 201 are handled. Full year course. Three (3) lectures and 3 hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

303 Zoology - Entomology
Pre-requisite: Biology 201 and 202

The- structure, life history and identification of insects of the major orders of insecta. Problems of insect control Collections are prepared by students with emphasis on proper method for preserving, mounting and labelling specimens. Common to agricultural students (406). An introduction to Morphology, Physiology and Classification of Insects. The section on economic entomology will include methods of insect control. Students will be expected to be familiar with insect pests of animals, plants and stored products of West Africa. A record of the lab. work will be submitted at the end of the term which will include life histories of two insects.- First Semester. Two (2) lectures and 3 hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

304 Zoology - Parasitology
(Introduction to Parasitology) Pre-requisite: Zoology 301

The structure, life history and identification of the members of the phyla Protozoa, Platyheliminthes, Nemathelminthes and Arthropoda and their relationship to human and veterinary parasitology. Laboratory work includes microscopic study plus slide preparation. Second Semes-. ter. Three (3) lectures and 3 hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

305-306 Zoology -Bio-Seminar
Pre-requisite: Zoology Major-Senior Standing

Reports and discussions of current literature, philosophy and history of biology and correlation of the work offered in various courses. Emphasis is placed on the use of the library and evaluation of scientific papers. Full year course. One hour presentation-discussion per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

308 Zoology - Microanatomy
Pre-requisite: Biology 201, Chemistry 301 and 302

A study of tissues and microscopic anatomy of organ systems. Emphasis is placed on the origin of tissues and organs and correlation of structure with function. Three (3) hours lecture and three (3) hours laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

401-402 Zoology - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
Pre-requisite: Biology 202

A study of the classification, inter-relationships and characteristics of the protochordates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and their representative examples. Laboratory work includes a comparative study of the external and internal anatomy by dissections, and microscopic examination. Three (3) hours lecture and 3 hours of laboratory per week. Full year course.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

403 Zoology-Comparative Animal Physiology
Pre-requisite: Biology 201, Chemistry 301-302

A study of functions of the organs and organ systems of the vertebrates with special reference to the human body. Laboratory work on organ activities. First Semester. Three (3) lectures and 3 hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

404 Zoology - Comparative Vertebrate Embryology
Pre-requisite: Biology 201 and 202

A general study of the embryological development of vertebrate animals with special emphasis placed on the frog, chick and pig development. Second Semester. Three (3) hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credit/semester

407 Zoology -General Ecology
Pre-requisite: Biology 103 and 104

A study of the relationships between plants, animals and their environment, including identification and classification of Liberian flora and fauna. Training in methods of field study and collections. Students will submit a record of their field work. First Semester. Three (3) lectures and 3 hours of field or laboratory work per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

408 Zoology - Genetics. Evolution and Eugenics:
Pre-requisite: Biology 202, Chemistry 301
and 302, Math 107

Principles of heredity derived from cytological, embryological and statistical methods: heritability of variations, theory of the gene interaction and metabolism. Mendelian principles as illustrated in hybrid genetics, and sex determination, linkage and crossing over. Identification of the gene biochemically, the Genetic Code and biochemical genetics. Application of genetics to problem of population migration. Analysis of the evidence for organic evolution and factors influencing it. Second Semester. Two (2) lectures and 3 hours of laboratory per week.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

409 Zoology - Zoology Problem I
Pre-requisite: Zoology Major-Senior Standing

A small original investigation involving laboratory, field and library work on the fauna of Liberia. First Semester/No credit (Included in credit for Zoology 410).

410 Zoology - Problem II
Pre-requisite: 409 Zoology

A continuation of Zoology 409 Second Semester.

Credit: 3 credits/semester

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